shujun gao

Research Officer

Tel: +65 6416 8989


Research Officer, NanoBio Lab, Singapore, 2018-present

Research Officer, Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Singapore, 2006-2018

Senior Lab Officer, Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, Singapore, 2003-2006

M.Sc. in Toxicology, Shandong Medical University, China, 1991

B. of Medicine, Shandong Medical University, China, 1984


  1. G. Yi, S. Gao, H. Lu, W. Z. Khoo, S. Liu, S. Chng, Y. Y. Yang, J. Y. Ying, and Y. Zhang, “Surface Antimicrobial Treatment by Biocompatible, Vertically Aligned Layered Double Hydroxide Array,” Advanced Materials Interfaces 9 (9), 2101872

  2. Y. Hu, S. Gao, H. Lu, and J. Y. Ying, “Acid-Resistant and Physiological pH-Responsive DNA Hydrogel Composed of A-Motif and i-Motif toward Oral Insulin Delivery,” Journal of the American Chemical Society 2022, 144, 12, 5461–5470

  3. S. N. Riduan, G. Yi, S. Gao, J. P. K. Tan, Y. L. Tan, Y. Yuan, H. Lu, S. Chng, J. T. Ong, P. Y. Hon, M. Y. Abdad, S. Vasoo, B. S. P. Ang, Y. Y. Yang, J. Y. Ying, and Y. Zhang, “Evaluation of the ZnO Nanopillar Surface for Disinfection Applications,” ACS Applied Bio Materials 4 (10), 7524-7531

  4. A. L. Z. Lee, C. Yang, S. Gao, Y. Wang, K. L. Hendrick, Y. Y. Yang, “Biodegradable Cationic Polycarbonates as Vaccine Adjuvants,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, (2020) DOI: 10.1021/acsami.0c09649. IF: 8.330

  5. W. Chin, G. Zhong, Q. Pu, C. Yang, W. Lou, P. F. De Sessions, B. Periaswamy, A. Lee, Z. C. Liang, X. Ding, S. Gao, C. W. Chu, S. Bianco, C. Bao, Y. W. Tong, W. Fan, M. Wu, J. L. Hedrick, Y. Y. Yang, “A Macromolecular Approach to Eradicate Multidrug Resistant Bacterial Infections While Mitigating Drug Resistance Onset,” Nature Communications, 9 (2018) 917

  6. K. Liang, J. E. Chung, S. J. Gao, N. Yongvongsoontorn, M. Kurisawa, “Highly Augmented Drug Loading and Stability of Micellar Nanocomplexes Composed of Doxorubicin and Poly(ethylene glycol)-Green Tea Catechin Conjugate for Cancer Therapy,” Advanced Materials, (2018) DOI: 10.1002/adma.201706963

  7. B. C. U. Tai, C. Du, S. Gao, A. C. A. Wan, “Synthetic Poly(vinylalcohol)-Based Membranes for Cartilage Surgery and Repair,” Biotechnology Journal: AFOB Special Issue on Stem Cells in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 12 (2017) 1700134

  8. J. P. K. Tan, D. J. Coady, H. Sardon, A. Yuen, S. Gao, S. W. Lim, Z. C. Liang, E. W. Tan, S. Venkataraman, A. C. Engler, M. Fevre, R. On, Y. Y. Yang, J. L. Hedrick, “Broad Spectrum Macromolecular Antimicrobials with Biofilm Disruption Capability and In Vivo Efficacy,” Advanced Healthcare Materials, 6 (2017) 1601420

  9. S. Liu, R. J. Ono, H. Wu, J. Y. Teo, Z. C. Liang, K. Xu, M. Zhang, G. Zhong, J. P. K. Tan, M. Ng, C. Yang, J. Chan, Z. Ji, C. Bao, K. Kumar, S. Gao, A. Lee, M. Fevre, H. Dong, J. Y. Ying, L. Li, W. Fan, J. L. Hedrick, Y. Y. Yang, “Highly Potent Antimicrobial Polyionenes with Rapid Killing Kinetics, Skin Biocompatibility and In Vivo Bactericidal Activity,” Biomaterials, 127 (2017) 36-48

  10. J. M. W. Chan, R. J. Wojtecki, H. Sardon, A. L. Z. Lee, C. E. Smith, A. Shkumatov, S. Gao, H. Kong, Y. Y. Yang, J. L. Hedrick, “Self-Assembled, Biodegradable Magnetic Resonance Imaging Agents: Organic Radical-Functionalized Diblock Copolymers,” ACS Macro Letters, 6 (2017) 176-180

  11. K. H. Bae, S. Tan, A. Yamashita, W. X. Ang, S. J. Gao, S. Wang, J. E. Chung, M. Kurisawa, “Hyaluronic Acid-Green Tea Catechin Micellar Nanocomplexes: Fail-Safe Cisplatin Nanomedicine for the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer Without Off-Target Toxicity,” Biomaterials, 148 (2017) 41-53

  12. K. Ichiyama, C. Yang, L. Chandrasekaran, S. Liu, L. Rong, Y. Zhao, S. Gao, A. Lee, K. Ohba, Y. Suzuki, Y. Yoshinaka, K. Shimotohno, K. Miyakawa, A. Ryo, J. Hedrick, N. Yamamoto, Y. Y. Yang, Cooperative Orthogonal Macromolecular Assemblies with Broad Spectrum Antiviral Activity, High Selectivity, and Resistance Mitigation,” Macromolecules, 49[7] (2016) 2618-2629

  13. J. M. W. Chan, J. P. K. Tan, A. C. Engler, X. Ke, S. Gao, C. Yang, H. Sardon, Y. Y. Yang, J. L. Hedrick, “Organocatalytic Anticancer Drug Loading of Degradable Polymeric Mixed Micelles via a Biomimetic Mechanism,” Macromolecules, 49[6] (2016) 2013-2021

  14. K. Liang, K. H. Bae, F. Lee, K. Xu, J. E. Chung, S. J. Gao, M. Kurisawa, “Self-Assembled Ternary Complexes Stabilized with Hyaluronic Acid-Green Tea Catechin Conjugates for Targeted Gene Delivery,” Journal of Controlled Release, 226 (2016) 205-216

  15. K. Xu, F. Lee, S. Gao, M.-H. Tan, M. Kurisawa, “Hyaluronidase-Incorporated Hyaluronic Acid–Tyramine Hydrogels for the Sustained Release of Trastuzumab,” Journal of Controlled Release, 216 (2015) 47-55

  16. K. Xu, K. Narayanan, F. Lee, K. H. Bae, S. Gao, M. Kurisawa, “Enzyme-Mediated Hyaluronic Acid–Tyramine Hydrogels for the Propagation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells in 3D,” Acta Biomaterialia, 24 (2015) 159-171

  17. C. D. Ren, S. Gao, M. Kurisawa, J. Y. Ying, “Cartilage Synthesis in Hyaluronic Acid-Tyramine Constructs,” Journal of Materials Chemistry B, 3[9] (2015) 1942-1956

  18. C. Yang, S. Q. Liu, S. Venkataraman, S. J. Gao, X. Y. Ke, X. T. Chia, J. L. Hedrick, Y. Y. Yang, “Structure-Directing Star-Shaped Block Copolymers: Supramolecular Vesicles for the Delivery of Anticancer Drugs,” Journal of Controlled Release, 208 (2015) 93-105

  19. A. C. Engler, X. Ke, S. Gao, J. M. W. Chan, D. J. Coady, R. J. Ono, R. Lubbers, A. Nelson, Y. Y. Yang, J. L. Hedrick, “Hydrophilic Polycarbonates: Promising Degradable Alternatives to Poly(ethylene glycol)-Based Stealth Materials,” Macromolecules, 48[6] (2015) 1673-1678

  20. A. L. Z. Lee, V. W. L. Ng, S. Gao, J. L. Hedrick, Y. Y. Yang, “Injectable Biodegradable Hydrogels from Vitamin D.Functionalized Polycarbonates for the Delivery of Avastin with Enhanced Therapeutic Efficiency against Metastatic Colorectal Cancer,” Biomacromolecules, 16[2] (2015) 465-475

  21. J. E. Chung, S. Tan, S. J. Gao, N. Yongvongsoontorn, S. H. Kim, J. H. Lee, H. S. Choi, H. Yano, L. Zhuo, S. Krishnamurthy, V. W. L. Ng, S. Gao, M.-H. Tan, Y. Y. Yang, “Phenformin-Loaded Polymeric Micelles for Targeting Both Cancer Cells and Cancer Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo,” Biomaterials, 35[33](2014) 9177-9186

  22. H. F. Lu, C. Chai, T. C. Lim, M. F. Leong, J. K. Lim, S. Gao, K. L. Lim, A. C. A. Wan, “A Defined Xeno-Free and Feeder-Free Culture System for the Derivation, Expansion and Direct Differentiation of Transgene-Free Patient-Specific Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells,” Biomaterials, 35[9] (2014) 2816-2826

  23. L.-S. Wang, C. Du, W. S. Toh, A. C. A. Wan, S. J. Gao, M. Kurisawa, “Modulation of Chondrocyte Functions and Stiffness-Dependent Cartilage Repair Using An Injectable Enzymatically Crosslinked Hydrogel with Tunable Mechanical Properties,” Biomaterials, 35 (2014) 2207-2217

  24. X.-Y. Ke, V. W. L. Ng, S.-J. Gao, Y. W. Tong, J. L. Hedrick, Y. Y. Yang, “Co-Delivery of Thioridazine and Doxorubicin Using Polymeric Micelles for Targeting Both Cancer Cells and Cancer Stem Cells,” Biomaterials, 35[3] (2014) 1096-1108

  25. Y. Wang, N. L. Ibrahim, J. Jiang, S. Gao, N. Erathodiyil, J. Y. Ying, “Construction of Block Copolymers for the Coordinated Delivery of Doxorubicin and Magnetite Nanocubes,” Journal of Controlled Release, 169[3] (2013) 211-219

  26. A. L. Z. Lee, V. W. L. Ng, S. Gao, J. L. Hedrick, Y. Y. Yang, “Injectable Hydrogels from Triblock Copolymers of Vitamin E-Functionalized Polycarbonate and Poly(Ethylene Glycol) for Subcutaneous Delivery of Antibodies for Cancer Therapy,” Advanced Functional Materials, 24[11] (2013) 1538-1550

  27. Z. Y. Ong, C. Yang, S. J. Gao, X. Y. Ke, J. L. Hedrick, Y. Y. Yang, “Galactose-Functionalized Cationic Polycarbonate Diblock Copolymer for Targeted Gene Delivery to Hepatocytes,” Macromolecular Rapid Communications, 34 (2013) 1714-1720

  28. K. Narayanan, V. Y. Lim, J. Shen, Z. W. Tan, D. Rajendran, S.-C. Luo, S. Gao, A. C. A. Wan, J. Y. Ying, “Extracellular Matrix-Mediated Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Differentiation to Insulin-Secreting Beta Cells,” Tissue Engineering Part A, 20[1-2] (2013) 424-433

  29. T. C. Lim, M. F. Leong, H. Lu, C. Du, S. Gao, A. C. A. Wan, J. Y. Ying, “Follicular Dermal Papilla Structures by Organization of Epithelial and Mesenchymal Cells in Interfacial Polyelectrolyte Complex Fibers,” Biomaterials, 34[29] (2013) 7064-7072

  30. Z. Y. Ong, S. J. Gao, Y. Y. Yang, “Short Synthetic ß-Sheet Forming Peptide Amphiphiles as Broad Spectrum Antimicrobials with Antibiofilm and Endotoxin Neutralizing Capabilities,” Advanced Functional Materials, 23[29] (2013) 3682-3692

  31. A. B. Ebrahim Attia, C. Yang, J. P. K. Tan, S. Gao, D. F. Williams, J. L. Hedrick, Y.-Y. Yang, “The Effect of Kinetic Stability on Biodistribution and Anti-Tumor Efficacy of Drug-Loaded Biodegradable Polymeric Micelles,” Biomaterials, 34 (2013) 3132-3140

  32. K. Xu, F. Lee, S. J. Gao, J. E. Chung, H. Yano, M. Kurisawa, “Injectable Hyaluronic Acid-Tyramine Hydrogels Incorporating Interferon-a2a for Liver Cancer Therapy,” Journal of Controlled Release, 166 (2013) 203-210

  33. K. Narayanan, K. M. Schumacher, F. Tasnim, K. Kandasamy, A. Schumacher, M. Ni, S. Gao, B. Gopalan, H. F. Lu, S.-X. Lim, M. F. Leong, K. Narayanan, R. P. K. Toh, S. Gao, A. C.A. Wan, “Efficient Neuronal Differentiation and Maturation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Encapsulated in 3D Microfibrous Scaffolds,” Biomaterials, 33[36] (2012) 9179-9187

  34. L. Liu, Y. Huang, S. N. Riduan, S. Gao, Y. Yang, W. Fan, Y. Zhang, “Main-Chain Imidazolium Oligomer Material as a Selective Biomimetic Antimicrobial Agent,” Biomaterials, 33[33] (2012) 8625-8631

  35. M. Khan, C. Y. Ang, N. Wiradharma, L.-K. Yong, S. Liu, L. Liu, S. Gao, Y.-Y. Yang, “Diaminododecane-based Cationic Bolaamphiphile as a Non-Viral Gene Delivery Carrier,” Biomaterials, 33[18] (2012) 4673-4680

  36. Y. Y. Lee, K. Narayanan, S. J. Gao, J. Y. Ying, “Elucidating Drug Resistance Properties in Scarce Cancer Stem Cells using Droplet Microarray,” Nano Today, 7 (2012) 29-34

  37. C. Yang, A. B. Ebrahim Attia, J. P. K. Tan, X. Ke, S. Gao, J. L. Hedrick, Y.-Y. Yang, “The Role of Non-Covalent Interactions in Anticancer Drug Loading and Kinetic Stability of Polymeric Micelles,” Biomaterials, 33[10] (2012) 2971-2979

  38. H. F. Lu, K. Narayanan, S. X. Lim, S. Gao, M. F. Leong, A. C. A. Wan, “3D Microfibrous Scaffold for Long-Term Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Storage under Chemically Defined Conditions,” Biomaterials, 33[8] (2012) 2419-2430

  39. A. L. Z. Lee, S. Venkataraman, S. B. M. Sirat, S. Gao, J. L. Hedrick, Y. Y. Yang, “The Use of Cholesterol-Containing Biodegradable Block Copolymers to Exploit Hydrophobic Interactions for the Delivery of Anticancer Drugs,” Biomaterials, 33[6] (2011) 1921-1928

  40. S. L. J. Ng, K. Narayanan, S. Gao, A. C. A. Wan, “Lineage Restricted Progenitors for the Repopulation of Decellularized Heart,” Biomaterials, 32[30] (2011) 7571-7580

  41. Y. Zhang, M. Tan, H. Li, Y. Zheng, S. Gao, H. Zhang, J. Y. Ying, “Mesoscopic Organic Nanosheets Peeled from Stacked 2D Covalent Frameworks,” Chemical Communications, 47 (2011) 7365-7367

  42. F. Nederberg, Y. Zhang, J. P. K. Tan, K. Xu, H. Wang, C. Yang, S. Gao, X. D. Guo, K. Fukushima, L. Li, J. Hedrick*, Y.-Y. Yang*, “Biodegradable Nanostructures with Selective Lysis of Microbial Membranes,” Nature Chemistry, 3 (2011) 409-414 *These authors contributed equally.

  43. Z. Yue, F. Wen, S. Gao, M. Y. Ang, P. K. Pallathadka, L. Liu, H. Yu, “Preparation of Three-Dimensional Interconnected Macroporous Cellulosic Hydrogels for Soft Tissue Engineering,” Biomaterials, 31[32](2010) 8141-8152

  44. B. C. U. Tai, D. Chan, S. J. Gao, A. C. A. Wan, J. Y. Ying, “The Use of a Polyelectrolyte Fibrous Scaffold to Deliver Differentiated hMSCs to the Liver,” Biomaterials, 31[1] (2010) 48-57

  45. K. Narayanan, K. J. Leck, S. Gao, A. C. A. Wan, “Three-Dimensional Reconstituted Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering,” Biomaterials, 30 (2009) 4309-4317

  46. Y. S. Pek, M. Kurisawa, S. Gao, J. E. Chung, J. Y. Ying, “The Development of a Nanocrystalline Apatite Reinforced Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid-Tyramine Composite as an Injectable Bone Cement,” Biomaterials 30 (2009) 822-828

  47. Y. S. Pek, S. Gao, M. S. Mohamed Arshad, K.-J. Leck, J. Y. Ying, “Porous Collagen-Apatite Nanocomposite Foams as Bone Regeneration Scaffolds,” Biomaterials 29 (2008) 4300-4305

  48. Y. Zheng, S. Gao, J.Y. Ying, “Glutathione-Capped CdTe QDs: Synthesis and Applications in Cell Imaging,” Advanced Materials, 19 (2007) 376-380

  49. T. B. Bini, S. Gao, S. Wang, S. Ramakrishna, “Poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) Biodegradable Microfibers and Electrospun Nanofibers for Nerve Tissue Engineering : An In Vitro Study,” Journal of Materials Science, 41[19] (2006) 6453-6459

  50. Y. Wang, S. J. Gao, H. Wen, H. S. Yoon, Y. Y. Yang, “Novel Cationic Core-shell Nanoparticles Self-assembled from a Biodegradable Amphiphilic Copolymer for the Co-delivery of Drugs and DNA,” Nature Materials, 5[10] (2006) 791-796

  51. L. Liu, S. Gao, Y. Yu, R. Wang, D. T. Liang, S. Liu, “Bio-Ceramic Hollow Fiber Membranes for Immunoisolation and Gene Delivery: I: Membrane Development,” Journal of Membrane Science, 280 (2006) 375-382

  52. T. B. Bini, S. Gao, S. Wang, S. Ramakrishna, “Development of Fibrous Biodegradable Polymer Conduits for Guided Nerve Regeneration,” Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine, 16[4] (2005) 367-375

  53. M. Kurisawa, J. E. Chung, Y. Y. Yang, S. J. Gao, H. Uyama, “Injectable Biodegradable hydrogels Composed of Hyaluronic Acid-tyramine Conjugates for Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering,” Chemical Communications, 34 (2005) 4312-4314

  54. T. B. Bini, S. Gao, T. T. Chan, S. Wang, A. Lim, L. B. Hai, S. Ramakrishna, “Electrospun Poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide) Biodegradable Polymer Nanofiber Tubes for Peripheral Nerve Regeneration,” Nanotechnology, 15 (2004) 1459-1464

  55. T. B. Bini, S. Gao, X. Xu, S. Wang, S. Ramakrishna, K. W.Leong, “Peripheral Nerve Regeneration by Microbraided poly(L-lactide-co-glycolide) Biodegradable Polymer Fibers,” Journal of Biomedical Materials Research, 68A (2004) 286-295

  56. J. Wang, S.-J. Gao, P.-C. Zhang, S. Wang, H.-Q. Mao, K. W. Leong, “Polyphosphoramidate Gene Carriers: Effect of Charge Group on Gene Transfer Efficiency,” Gene Therapy, 11[12] (2004) 1001-1010

  57. Y. Li, J. Wang, C. Lee, C. Y. Wang, S. J. Gao, G. P. Tong, Y. X. Ma, B. Soon, C. T. Lim, H. Yu, H.-Q. Mao, K. W. Leong, S. Wang, “CNS Gene Transfer Facilitated by a Novel Controlled Release System Based on DNA Complexes of Degradable Polycation PPE-EA: A Comparison with Polyethylenimine/DNA Complexes,” Gene Therapy, 11 (2004) 109-114

  58. S. C. H. Wong, L. L. Ong, C. P. N. Er, S. Gao, H. Yu, J.B.Y. So, “Cloning of Rat Telomerase Catalytic Subunit Functional Domains,” Reconstitution of Telomerase Activity and Enzymatic Profile of Pig and Chicken Tissues Life Science, 73 (2003) 2749-2760

  59. G. P. Tang, J. M. Zeng, S. J. Gao, Y. X. Ma, L. Shi, S. Wang, “Polyethylene Glyco Modified Polyethylenimine for Improved CNS Gene Transfer: Effect of PEGylation Extent,” Biomaterials, 24 (2003) 2351-2362

  60. L. Shi, G. P. Tang, S. J. Gao, Y. X. Ma, B. H. Liu, Y. Li, S. Wang, “Repeated Intrathecal Administration of Plasmid DNA Complexed with Polyethylene Glycol-Grafted Polyethylenimine Led to Prolonged Transgene Expression in the Spinal Cord,” Gene Therapy, 10 (2003) 1179-1188

  61. X. Y. Xu, W.-C. Yee, P. Y. K. Hwang, H. Yu, A. C. A. Wan, S. J. Gao, K.-L. Boon, H.-Q. Mao, K. W. Leong, S. Wang, “Peripheral Nerve Regeneration with Sustained Released of Polyphosphoester Microencapsulated NGF Within Nerve Guide Conduits,” Biomaterials, 24[13] (2003) 2405-2412

  62. X. Y. Xu, H. Yu, S. J. Gao, H.-Q. Mao, K. W. Leong, S. Wang, “Polyphosphester Microspheres for Sustained Release of Biologically Active Nerve Growth Factor,” Biomaterials, 23 (2002) 3765-3772

  63. S. Wang, N. Ma, S. J. Gao, H. Yu, K. W. Leong, “Gene Expression in the Brainstem Effected by Intramuscular Injections of Polymeric DNA Complexes,” Molecular Therapy, 3 (2001) 658-664

  64. S. Wang, A. C. A. Wan, X. Y. Xu, S. J. Gao, H.-Q. Mao, K. W. Leong, H. Yu, “A New Nerve Guide Conduit Material Composed of a Biodegradable Poly(phosphoester),” Biomaterials, 22 (2001) 1157-1169

  65. S.-M. Chia, L. Jun, X. Xi, K.W. Leong, S. Gao, H. Yu, “Hepatocyte Encapsulation for Enhanced Cellular Functions,” Tissue Engineering, 6[5] (2000) 481-495


  1. J. Y. Ying, Y. S. Pek, S. Gao, M. S. Mohamed Arshad, P. L. Mao, “Porous Collagen-Inorganic Tissue Scaffolds for Orthopaedic and Other Load-Bearing Application,” European Patent Granted on November 7, 2012

  2. E. Chow, J. Y. Ying, S. Gao, “Nanoemulsions for Transdermal Delivery: A New Vehicle for Dermocosmetics,” Singapore Patent Granted on September 28, 2012

  3. J. Y. Ying, Y. S. Pek, S. Gao, M. S. M. Arshad, P. Mao, “Porous Collagen-Inorganic Tissue Scaffolds for Orthopaedic and Other Load-Bearing Application,” Singapore Patent Granted on August 31, 2009

  4. J. Y. Ying, Y. Zheng, S. Gao, “Synthesis and Bioimaging Applications of Glutathione-Capped CdTe Quantum Dots,” Singapore Patent Granted on September 30, 2008